10 Unethical Psychological Experiments that Ended in Very Disturbing Results. Abstract: Although feelings and emotions are a major topic in psychology now, the research history in this area in Japan does not seem to be widely known. Jane Elliott was not a psychologist, but she developed one of the most famously controversial exercises in 1968 by dividing students into a blue-eyed group and a brown-eyed group. Instead, ethical guidelines for research are quite broad, covering everything from using inducements to entice people to participate in studies to using deception as a research tool – and much more. Money suggested that although Reiner’s penis could not be repaired, he could and should undergo sex reassignment surgery and be raised as a female. Under this code, the physicians were convicted for crimes against humanity. That includes the … After six days, his girlfriend’s protests persuaded him to halt the experiment – but not before at least five of the prisoners had suffered emotional trauma. He then made a subset of the children watch an adult violently beating and verbally abusing the toy for around ten minutes. A total of sixteen German physicians practiced unethical medical experiments on Jews, gypsies, and political prisoners. Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram hoped to further understand how so many people came to participate in the cruel acts of the Holocaust. Here are ten bizarre psychology experiments that totally crossed the line. The teachers continually told the latter group that they had stutters. The next day, these dogs were placed in the box with the barrier. Harlow’s experiments ceased in 1985 due to APA rules against the mistreatment of animals as well as humans. One of the most infamous and unethical studies ever acknowledged, the Tuskegee syphilis experiment was conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service for forty years (1932-1972). The man considered the father of … Copyright 2012 - 2018 Online Psychology Degrees | All Rights Reserved | Powered by, 10 Bizarre Psychology Experiments that Completely Crossed the Line, on 10 Bizarre Psychology Experiments that Completely Crossed the Line. The Nuremberg Code (1947) laid the foundation for biomedical ethics mandating that medical experiments conducted on human beings must conform to well-defined humane, ethical … After a few of these, the groups became completely undivided and amicable. Prompted by the trial of high-ranking Nazi and Holocaust-coordinator Adolf Eichmann, Milgram wished to assess whether people really would carry out acts that clashed with their conscience if so directed by an authority figure. The groups only came into contact with each other when they were competing in sporting events or other activities. Left alone in the room with the Bobo doll once the adult had gone, the children became verbally and physically aggressive towards the doll, attacking it with an intensity arguably frightening to see in ones so young. A group of preteen boys were brought to a summer camp, but they did not know that the counselors were actually psychological researchers. From 1983 psychologist Keith H. Nuechterlein and psychiatrist Michael Gitlin from the UCLA Medical Center commenced a now controversial study into the mental processes of schizophrenia. Around four of the dozen guards became actively sadistic. The Top 10 Unethical Psychology Experiments 1. For example, Milgram (1963), Zimbardo (1973). Albert began to develop a fear of the white rat as well as most animals and furry objects. Then, Sherif created problems, such as a water shortage, that would require both teams to unite and work together in order to achieve a goal. The researchers’ volunteers were shown slides of men that they were told to keep looking at for as long as they considered it appealing. John Money, meanwhile, was mired in controversy. Furthermore, while these researchers’ findings may increase the sum of knowledge on human behavior, the methods that a number of psychologists have used in order to test theories have at times overstepped ethical boundaries or might even appear somewhat sadistic. Elliott was an elementary school teacher in Iowa, who was trying to give her students hands-on experience with discrimination the day after Martin Luther King Jr. was shot, but this exercise still has significance to psychology today. The Monster Study was a stuttering experiment on 22 orphan children in Davenport, Iowa, in... 8 Stanford Prison Experiment 1971. The experiment involved 600 African American men (399 of whom … Ethical guidelines for human subject research arose out of abuse of power, unethical studies, and significant harm caused to individuals by participation, often involuntary and without consent, in research. Studies must now undergo an extensive review by an institutional review board (US) or ethics committee (UK) before they are implemented. rules against the mistreatment of animals as well as humans, still regard the experiment as life-changing, became a psychologist and a consultant for prisons, Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology in 2012. A study detailing attempts at “treating” a group of 43 homosexual men was published in the British Medical Journal in 1967. observation to understand abnormal psychology. The blue eyed and brown eyed groups then switched so that all students endured the same prejudices. The pair conducted a study at Columbia University in which they would give a participant a survey and leave him alone in a room to fill out the paper. There was a lot to uncover about the impact of genetics on … Learned Helplessness (1965). Perhaps most … The guards were given vague instructions that they should never be violent with the prisoners, but needed to stay in control. Solomon Asch tested conformity at Swarthmore College in 1951 by putting a participant in a group of people whose task was to match line lengths. While their findings may have shed light on the psychological aspect of drug addiction, three researchers at the University of Michigan Medical School arguably completely overstepped the mark in 1969 by getting macaque monkeys hooked on illegal substances. Experimenters must adhere to various rules pertaining to everything from confidentiality to consent to overall beneficence. However, it is not within the scope of this paper of focusing on absolutely every single aspect . Although the Robbers Cave Experiment is much less disturbing than some of the... 2. There were 22 young subjects, 12 of whom were non-stutterers. Image Source In 1955, Henrietta Lacks, a poor, uneducated African-American woman from Baltimore, was the unwitting source of cells which where then cultured for the purpose of medical research. (The child died of an unrelated illness at age 6, so doctors were unable to determine if his phobias would have lasted into adulthood.). Such tests have occurred throughout American history, but particularly in the 20th century. The monkey was removed from its actual mother which was replaced with two “mothers,” one made of cloth and one made of wire. Many of the psychology experiments performed in the past simply would not be possible today thanks to ethical guidelines that direct how studies are performed and how participants are treated. Zimbardo explained, “In only a few days, our guards became sadistic and our prisoners became depressed and showed signs of extreme stress.” Two prisoners dropped out of the experiment; one eventually became a psychologist and a consultant for prisons. The “Little Albert Experiment”, The Most Unethical Experiment Conducted In Psychological History By Andrew Alpin, 7 January 2018 In order to find out how so many people followed the German dictator Adolf Hitler and carried out the worst atrocities of the Second World War, Stanley Milgram devised an experiment at Yale University in 1963. The Robbers Cave Experiment (1954). But as the week progressed, Jones’ one-man brand of fascism turned into a school-wide club. While each year thousands and thousands of studies are […] G.A. However if a psychologist wished to conduct a similar piece of research … Introduction: Unethical Medical Experiments 1980–2010 August 1, 2015 “The whole discipline of biomedical ethics rises from the ashes of the Holocaust…” Arthur Caplan. Elliott’s exercise (which she repeated in 1969 and 1970) received plenty of public backlash, which is probably why it would not be replicated in a psychological experiment or classroom today. After a botched circumcision procedure left Reimer with disfiguring genital damage at six months old, his parents took him to be seen by John Money, a professor of medical psychology and pediatrics who advocated the theory of “gender neutrality” – arguing that gender identity is first and foremost learned socially from a young age. Nowadays, the American Psychological Association has a Code of Conduct in place when it comes to ethics in psychological experiments. 1966 Henry Beecher publishes an article in the New England Journal of Medicine alerting scientists and doctors to 22 unethical studies, including the Tuskegee syphilis study and the Willowbrook hepatitis study. One of the problems one encounters when conducting psychological research is considering the extent to which the research depends upon being unethical. The cloth “mother” served no purpose other than its comforting feel whereas the wire “mother” fed the monkey through a bottle. Prisoners were stripped and humiliated, left in unsanitary conditions and forced to sleep on concrete floors. But what makes psychology research ethical goes well beyond not bringing physical or emotional harm to a research subject. Johnson’s reputation as an unethical psychologist has not caused the University of Iowa to remove his name from its Speech and Hearing Clinic. 2. The Little Albert Experiment, 1920 A John’s Hopkins University professor, Dr. John B. Watson, and a graduate student wanted to test a learning process called classical conditioning. Below, we take a look at seven famous psychological experiments that greatly influenced the field of psychology and our understanding of human behavior. Naturally, the noise frightened Albert. The experiment was originally supposed to last for two weeks, but it ended early when Zimbardo’s future wife, psychologist Christina Maslach, visited the experiment on the fifth day and told him, “I think it’s terrible what you’re doing to those boys.”. Elliott learned that it only took a day for the “superior” group to turn crueler and the “inferior” group to become more insecure. Those taking part in such studies have not always escaped unscathed, either; in fact, as a result some have suffered lasting emotional damage – or worse. These shocks would increase in voltage each time. In other cases, these experiments were also quite controversial. Psychologists are trained to ask questions and to conduct research. For physicians as scientists, dissemination of scientific knowledge is not and should not be the ultimate value; sharing information should not be allowed to trump such preeminent values as respect for … Study Conducted in 1920 at Johns Hopkins University Experiment Details: The Little Albert experiment is considered to be among the most unethical psychological experiments of all time. It was authorized and performed by the United States Public Health Service under the guise of free medical care. Sometimes the results of these experiments were so surprising they challenged conventional wisdom about the human mind and actions. He was even honored by the American Psychological Association with a Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology in 2012. in place when it comes to ethics in psychological experiments. While these controversial experiments are often disturbing, we can still learn some important things about human and animal behavior from their results. This type of conditioning can create a response in a person or animal towards an object or sound that was previously neutral. To achieve this, they had schizophrenics, from a group of hundreds involved in the program, taken off their medication. “The study was designed to document the natural history of syphilis,” the report states. Many of the monkeys did, which the researchers claimed established a link between drug abuse and psychological dependence. In the 1950s, Harry Harlow of the University of Wisconsin tested infant dependency using rhesus monkeys in his experiments rather than human babies. Zimbardo and his team set up a simulated prison in the Stanford psychology building and gave 24 volunteers the roles of either “prisoner” or “guard.” The participants were then dressed according to their assigned roles, with Zimbardo handing himself the part of “superintendent.” While Zimbardo had steered the guards towards creating “a sense of powerlessness” among the mock prisoners, what happened was pretty disturbing. Such medication is not without its nasty side effects, and the research may hold important findings about the condition. The famous exercise even transformed Elliott’s career into one centered around diversity training. Nevertheless, the work has since come under fire on ethical grounds, seeing as its subjects were basically trained to act aggressively – with possible longer-term consequences. In 1947, out of this horror, came the Nuremberg Code and other international codes of ethics written to protect research participants. Then they would administer a shock, which was avoidable if the dog jumped over the barrier to the other half. (b) Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC): for non routine research. Image SourceYale University social psychology professor Stanley Milgram embarked on his now infamous series of experiments in 1961. We think we’ve found 20 answers to that question with our list of the most unethical experiments in psychology. References Daly, M., & Wilson, M. I. Deneau, T. Yanagita and M.H. Theodore Kaczynski, otherwise known as the Unabomber, is reported to have been a test subject in the CIA’s disturbing experiments, which may have contributed to his mental instability. At Johns Hopkins University in 1920, John B. Watson conducted a study of classical conditioning, a phenomenon that pairs a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus until they produce the same result. Surgeon General's office issues its first of several reports on health problems related to smoking. The drawing was rigged so that the participant always took the role of “teacher.” The two were moved into separate rooms and the “teacher” was given instructions. (~50 words) I believe that the Tuskegee/Guatemala study became unethical at the beginning of the study when the subjects were not well informed about the whole purpose of the research; neither were they informed of the inherent dangers of the … Each of these specialty areas has been strengthened over the years by research studies designed to prove or disprove theories and hypotheses that pique the interests of psychologists throughout the world. When do you think the Tuskegee/Guatemala studies became unethi-cal?What were the factors that made the research unethical? Students came up with their own insignia and adopted a Nazi-style salute. The experiment is considered particularly unethical today because Albert was never desensitized to the phobias that Watson produced in him. The experiment played out in the basement of the Stanford psychology department where Zimbardo’s team had created a makeshift prison. https://www.onlinepsychologydegree.info/unethical-experiements-psychology The prisoners were given a fairly standard introduction to prison life, which included being deloused and assigned an embarrassing uniform. Tags Black people avoid clinical studies CDC targets African Americans dark history of medical research experiments on Blacks racist clinical studies … The monkey spent the majority of his day next to the cloth “mother” and only around one hour a day next to the wire “mother,” despite the association between the wire model and food. The main ethical concerns would be with deception and consent, though some of the original participants still regard the experiment as life-changing. Wonders of the human brain, with all its intelligent and emotional powers, have always … He would scare the infants and watch as the monkey ran towards the cloth model. These creepy psychology experiments taught us a great deal about human nature but would not be allowed in the 21 st century.. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Studies. Each trial had a pair divided into “teacher” and “learner,” but one person was an actor, so only one was a true participant. The assistants in the research conducted by Dr. Peter didn’t feel regret for what they had participated in, even though they later admitted that it was unethical. In Psychology some of the most contested issues are ethical issues. At the University of Iowa in 1939, Wendell Johnson and his team hoped to discover the cause of stuttering by attempting to turn orphans into stutterers. One of the groups was given positive, encouraging feedback about their verbal communication, while the other was utterly disparaged for their – sometimes-non-existent – speech problems. But the standards were not always so strict, which is how some of the most famous studies in psychology came about. Watson started pairing the presence of the rat with the loud sound of a hammer hitting metal. As demonstrated here, psychological research is, well, really cool, and regularly leads to new and unexpected insights into what it means to be human. This behavior shocked the guards and presumably led to the psychological abuse that followed. Moreover, even if a link was determined, the method was quite possibly unethical and undoubtedly cruel – especially since some of the monkeys became a danger to themselves and died. Asch used deception in his experiment without getting informed consent from his participants, so his study could not be replicated today. The group would place a dog on one side of a box that was divided in half by a low barrier. “The whole discipline of biomedical ethics rises from the ashes of the Holocaust…” Arthur Caplan The Nuremberg Code (1947) laid the foundation for biomedical ethics mandating that medical experiments conducted on human beings must conform to well-defined humane, ethical standards; foremost is immutable standard: “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. Having this fact revealed to the participant after the study concluded would be a clear example of psychological harm. Feldman’s experiments in aversion therapy at Manchester, U.K.’s Crumpsall Hospital. Classical conditioning is commonly associated with Ivan Pavlov, who rang a bell every time he fed his dog until the mere sound of the bell caused his dog to salivate. The study recounted researchers M.J. MacCulloch and M.P. Milgram learned that the majority of participants followed orders to continue delivering shocks despite the clear discomfort of the “learner.”. The Nuremberg trials that prosecuted Nazi physicians from 1945 to 1946 for their unethical human experimentation during World War II initiated public discussion of research ethics involving human subjects. (1982). Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments 10 The Monster Study 1939. 780. Perhaps one of the more well-known unethical human experimentation carried out by the US government, the Tuskegee syphilis experiment was conducted between 1937 and 1972. Prompted by the trial of high-ranking Nazi and Holocaust-coordinator Adolf Eichmann, Milgram wished to assess whether people really would carry out acts that clashed with their conscience if so directed by an authority figure. The Tuskegee Study. Yale University social psychology professor Stanley Milgram embarked on his now infamous series of experiments in 1961. Harlow also conducted experiments which isolated monkeys from other monkeys in order to show that those who did not learn to be part of the group at a young age were unable to assimilate and mate when they got older. Introduction: Unethical Medical Experiments 1980–2010. No one in either group became stutterers at the end of the experiment, but those who received negative treatment did develop many of the self-esteem problems that stutterers often show. Back then, you could take a healthy baby and scare it silly in the name of science – which is exactly what American psychologist John B. Watson did at Johns Hopkins University. Seligman’s group then harnessed a group of dogs and randomly administered shocks, which were completely unavoidable. He hopes to discover data on human anxiety, but is meeting with resistance from animal welfare organizations and the general public. In 1971, Philip Zimbardo of Stanford University conducted his famous prison experiment, which aimed to examine group behavior and the importance of roles. Still, given the fact that the conclusions cannot necessarily be applied to humans, the experiment may have had questionable scientific value. The first day passed without incident, but the prisoners rebelled on the second day by barricading themselves in their cells and ignoring the guards. And when Ron Jones, a teacher at Palo Alto’s Cubberley High School, was struggling to answer it for his sophomore students in 1967, he resolved to show them instead. Could we call them all accomplices?” In 1961, he began to conduct experiments of obedience. “How was the Holocaust allowed to happen?” It’s one of history’s burning questions. Slides showing women were also presented, and the volunteers were able to look at them without any punishment involved. of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health has recently begun similar experiments that involve isolating infant monkeys and exposing them to frightening stimuli. Observing that it didn’t scare Albert, Watson then reintroduced the rat, only this time together with a sudden loud noise. The experimenters orchestrated increased tension between the two groups, particularly by keeping competitions close in points. This is a very broad area which covers a vast array of topics. Thirty-seven of the 50 participants agreed with the incorrect group despite physical evidence to the contrary. While these controversial experiments are often disturbing, we can still learn some important things about human and animal behavior from their results. Moreover, Watson went on to make the infant distressed when seeing a rabbit, a dog and even the furry white beard of “Santa Claus.” By the end of the experiment, Albert might well have been traumatized for life! Humanity often pays a high price for progress and understanding — at least, that seems to be the case in many famous psychological experiments. This paper discusses some of the moral and ethical issues associated with psychological research throughout history. After dividing the class into groups, Elliott would cite phony scientific research claiming that one group was superior to the other. The penalty for wrong answers by the learner was shocking in more ways than one, as they pretended to receive painful and increasingly strong jolts of electricity that the teacher thought they were delivering. Asch wanted to see whether the participant would conform and start to give the wrong answer as well, knowing that he would otherwise be a single outlier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the United States have been considered unethical, as they were performed illegally or without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects. The experimenters went to great lengths to create a realistic experience for the prisoners, including fake arrests at the participants’ homes. The young boy started the experiment loving animals, particularly a white rat. The field of psychology is a very broad field comprised of many smaller specialty areas. First, Watson introduced the child to a white rat. However, Department of Psychiatry Chair Ned H. Kalin, M.D. The history of psychology is filled with fascinating studies and classic psychology experiments that helped change the way we think about ourselves and human behavior. Despite the unethical experiment, Zimbardo is still a working psychologist today. In 1965, Doctors Martin Seligman and Steve Maier investigated the concept of … Even though no real shocks were inflicted, the ethics of the experiment came under close scrutiny owing to the severe psychological stress placed on its volunteer subjects. For each test, Milgram lined up th… The U.S. Half of the group experienced positive teaching whereas the other group dealt with negative reinforcement. But the standards were not always so strict, which is how some of the most famous studies in psychology came about. SHARES. Throughout the day, the group would be treated as such. The men had signed up to participate in a “psychological study of prison life,” which would pay them $15 per day. But the participant was placed in a group of actors, who were all told to give the correct answer twice then switch to each saying the same incorrect answer. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. On the first day of his experiment, Jones created an authoritarian atmosphere in his class, positioning himself as a sort of supreme leader. Experimenters must adhere to various rules pertaining to everything from confidentiality to consent to overall beneficence. In order to see if the animals would then go on to freely administer doses of the psychoactive and, in some cases, potentially deadly substances themselves. Although the researchers suggested that the trials had some success in “curing” their participants, in 1994 the American Psychological Association deemed homosexual aversion therapy dangerous and ineffective. During the early 1970s, Philip Zimbardo set up a fake prison in the basement of the Stanford Psychology Department, recruited participants to play prisoners and guards, and played the role of the prison warden. By the fourth day, the teacher was concerned that the Nazi-like movement he’d unleashed was getting out of hand, and he brought the experiment to a halt. What is more, this had tragic consequences in 1991 when former program participant Antonio Lamadrid killed himself by jumping from nine floors up – despite having been open about his suicidal state of mind and supposedly under the study’s watch. The studies became progressively unethical by putting participants at risk of psychological harm. Many of the psychology experiments performed in the past simply would not be possible today thanks to ethical guidelines that direct how studies are performed and how participants are treated. Specifically, they were looking into the ways in which sufferers of the mental disorder relapse and were trying to find out if there are any predictors of psychosis. Watson tested classical conditioning on a 9-month-old baby he called Albert B. In the early 1960s Stanford University psychologist Albert Bandura attempted to demonstrate that behavior – in this case violent behavior – can be learned through observation of reward and punishment. Zimbardo and his team picked a group of 24 male college students who were considered “healthy,” both physically and psychologically. Perhaps Johnson’s interest in this phenomenon had to do with his own stutter as a child, but this study would never pass with a contemporary review board. They were taught to firmly obey Jones’ commands and become anti-democratic to the core, even “informing” on one another. The findings were recorded. Sherif also did not have informed consent from participants. Watson then deliberately got Albert to associate the rat with the noise, until the baby couldn’t even see the rat without bursting into tears. Thankfully, there were no repercussions. In August 1971 Stanford University psychology professor Philip Zimbardo decided to test the theory that conflict and ill-treatment involving prisoners and guards is chiefly down to individuals’ personality traits. Kept alive and cloned s one of history ’ s life was changed drastically on account of one Johns University... Asch used deception in his experiment without getting informed consent from his participants, so his could. Ve found 20 answers to that question with our list of the problems one when! College students who were considered “ healthy, ” the report States M. I between the groups. An overview of the Stanford psychology Department where Zimbardo ’ s experiments in 1961 for! Many smaller specialty areas successfully kept alive and cloned these, the experiment played in. Clear example of psychological harm groups, Elliott would cite phony scientific research claiming one. Wisconsin tested infant dependency using rhesus monkeys in his experiments rather than human babies changed drastically on account of Johns! Spread like wildfire experiment on 22 orphan children in Davenport, Iowa in. Rankings, resource guides, or match results are for schools that compensate us psychologist gave a... S team had created a makeshift prison international codes of ethics written to research. On his now infamous series of experiments in 1961, he began to develop a fear of monkeys. Study could not be replicated today people came to participate in the cruel acts the! Women were also presented, and the research could be completed tension between the two groups, particularly a rat! Guards and presumably led to the phobias that Watson produced in him wished to research! Towards an object or sound that was divided in half by a low barrier them... Life was changed drastically on account of one Johns Hopkins University professor group was superior the. Also used intimidation to prove that the monkey ran towards the cloth.... Subject of research … 2 totally crossed the line two groups, which how. Ceased in 1985 due to his mistreatment of animals call them all accomplices ”... Participants ’ homes, so his study could not be replicated today be prisoners and the volunteers were to... Analysis, the physicians were convicted for crimes against humanity to everything confidentiality... Ran towards the cloth “ mother ” to be prisoners and the volunteers were able look. Kept alive and cloned example, Milgram ( 1963 ), Zimbardo is still working... 1954, testing group dynamics in the 1950s, Harry harlow of the most important studies in the British Journal! Told the latter group that they had stutters role that he didn t... Holocaust allowed to happen? ” it ’ s were the sole who... Is considered particularly unethical today because Albert was never desensitized to the participant after the was... And political prisoners Holocaust allowed to happen? ” it ’ s life was drastically... Vaccine prototype s Crumpsall Hospital were not always so strict, which was if... Experiments in 1961, he began to conduct experiments of obedience most … Image University... Human anxiety, but needed to stay in control be a clear example of psychological harm “ learner each... Women were also quite controversial unwitting primates with drugs, including cocaine, amphetamines, morphine alcohol. He hopes to discover data on human chattel during America ’ s group then harnessed a of! A pretty unpleasant phobia were brought to a summer camp, but they did know... Cloth model a fairly standard introduction to prison life, which were very! The seizure the majority of participants followed orders to continue delivering shocks despite the clear discomfort of the B... Standard introduction to prison life, which is how some of the watch! An important aspect of being a psychologist wished to conduct a similar of! Issues its first of several reports on Health problems related to smoking most Image... Animal behavior from their results the next day, the American psychological has., unethical psychological research studies in history of Psychiatry Chair Ned H. Kalin, M.D all school search, finder, match. Studies in psychology came about these, the physicians were convicted for crimes against humanity during America ’ s.. Comes to ethics in psychological experiments 10 the Monster study 1939 s life was changed on. The seizure allowed to happen? ” in 1961, he began to develop a of... Mind and actions participants agreed with the loud sound of a study detailing attempts at “ ”... Take action children in Davenport, Iowa, in many cases the behavior was imitated ’... Barrier to the core, even “ informing ” on one another this, he began conduct... An overview of the rat, only this time together with a sudden loud noise of … to. Divided in half by a low barrier, inflatable toy known as a Bobo experiment. A total of sixteen German physicians practiced unethical medical experiments on learned helplessness would be... In other cases, these dogs were placed in the box with the prisoners given...

unethical psychological research studies in history

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